In a large, heavy skillet, heat the oil over a medium flame. Add the garlic and sauté until fragrant, about 20 seconds. Add the pasta, asparagus, ½ teaspoon each of salt and pepper, and the 1 cup of reserved cooking liquid, and toss to coat. Remove the skillet from the heat. Add the mozzarella, prosciutto, and basil and toss to combine. Season with more salt and pepper to taste. Transfer the pasta to shallow bowls and serve.